Can you be reinfected with COVID? What we know and dont – CNET

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

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You won’t know if a second occurrence of symptoms is the result of a new infection or an old one unless you have been tested several times.


Amanda Capritto/CNET

Since the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, experts have grappled with the question of whether or not a patient who recovers from COVID-19 can contract the disease again. Although coronavirus reinfections are rare, there are several documented cases where it appears to have happened. Scientists are particularly interested in these cases because they could teach us a lot about how the coronavirus makes people sick, as well as how vaccines might be able to help end the pandemic.

There are also practical considerations. For example, if you’ve recovered from COVID-19, do you still need to wear a mask when you go out in public? Should you get a vaccine when one becomes available or will you not need one now?

Like many questions surrounding the coronavirus, there’s still much we don’t know. That’s why experts almost always recommend an abundance of caution when making decisions that could affect your health or the wellbeing of others.

Here, we walk you through what doctors know and, just as importantly, what they don’t know about COVID-19 reinfection, including what to look out for and steps you can take to help protect yourself. This article is intended to be a general overview and not a source of medical advice. If you think you might have COVID-19, here’s how to find a nearby testing site.

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Patients are checked in for their doctors’ appointment outside the facility and aren’t permitted indoors until they get a text that the doctor is ready to see them. Free N95 masks were being given to those about to enter.


Sarah Tew/CNET

Is getting reinfected with COVID-19 something I should worry about?

In most confirmed cases of reinfection, the patient first tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease, then at some point tested negative before testing positive for a second time. Although several dozen cases have been reported, they represent a very small percentage of the over 45 million total confirmed cases worldwide, according to Johns Hopkins University

In other words, while reinfection can happen in very limited circumstances, it’s not a common occurrence. “Real-world experience suggests reinfections are very rare, but would be interesting to see if there is a seasonality to the virus with waning immunity next year,” Dr. Onyema Ogbuagu, a Yale Medicine infectious disease specialist, told Heathline.

Translation: It’s really not anything you need to worry about right now.

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Recovering from COVID-19 can require bedrest.


Angela Lang/CNET

How do I know if I’ve been reinfected or if COVID just never went away?

Some people who feel sick weeks or even months after testing positive for COVID-19 may still be experiencing symptoms as a result of the initial infection, aka “long-haulers.” 

In other instances, doctors have run genetic analyses on samples of the virus taken from patients during the first infection and then again during the second. In cases where those samples showed genetically significant differences, scientists have concluded they were separate, unrelated infections.

Unless you get extensive testing, you probably won’t know for certain whether a recurrence of COVID-19 is a bona fide reinfection or an example of a long-hauler coronavirus infection.

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In the waiting room at the doctors’ office, signs on every chair ask that patients refrain from sitting.


Sarah Tew/CNET

Are you better or worse the second time you get COVID-19?

Again, you will need COVID test results to determine if your symptoms are connected to your initial infection or if they’re new.

With most viruses, a second infection is usually milder than the first because the body has built antibodies against it. However, that’s not always the case, and there’s still much about SARS-CoV-2 doctors are continuing to reveal. With some viruses, already having antibodies for the virus can actually make a second infection worse. Dengue fever and Zika virus are familiar examples. 

For most patients who’ve had COVID-19 more than once, symptoms have typically been mild or absent entirely with a second bout with the virus. But some patients’ second illnesses have actually been worse compared to their first infection. It’s too soon to know for sure which reaction is more typical, plus there are too few cases to study.

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It’s hard to say whether COVID-19 symptoms such as dry cough and loss of taste and smell get worse or better with a second infection.


Sarah Tew/CNET

Am I immune from COVID-19 if I’ve already had it once?

The immune system is a complicated network of organs, tissues and cells that work together to protect the body against disease. It doesn’t have an on/off switch. Rather, there are varying degrees of immunity one may have against a particular pathogen or germ.

Doctors and scientists have so far avoided making any strong claims about lasting immunity to COVID-19. According to epidemiologists, reinfection is unlikely for the first three months after testing positive for the virus.

How does COVID-19 reinfection affect a potential vaccine?

We won’t really know until one or more vaccines are approved and widely distributed, but doctors are hopeful that coronavirus vaccines will give people at least enough immunity to be able to resume normal life once enough people have been vaccinated. That’s because in the vast majority of cases, COVID-19 patients have so far not appeared to contract the virus a second time, which gives scientists some hope that a vaccine will work.

In fact, cases of coronavirus reinfection could help researchers better understand how to best distribute and administer a vaccine. For example, it may be necessary to give people regular booster shots, which reinforce immunity, until the virus is completely contained.

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Signage seen at Whole Foods in Asheville, North Carolina explains that they now require masks to be worn inside, and they will provide one for customers if need be.


Sarah Tew/CNET

Do I still have to wear a mask or social distance if I’ve had COVID-19?

Every public health organization, including the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, recommends the same set of safety precautions for everyone regardless of whether or not they’ve had COVID-19 in the past. (The only exceptions are for cases of active infections, which call for even more stringent protocols.) That means masks, social distancing, hand washing, regular surface cleaning — everything experts have been telling us to do since the beginning of the pandemic.

For specific details on that and more, here’s how to sanitize your home and carwhere to buy the most popular face mask styles and how to more safely enjoy a restaurant meal during the pandemic.

The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.

Beetroot peptide may be a decent nominee for growth of a medication to deal with provocative infections – Trends Press Wire

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

The peptide is prepared to impede a personal enzyme that is accountable for the breakdown of carrier molecules in the torso.

Due to its extremely safe molecular hierarchy and pharmacological properties, the beetroot peptide may be a decent nominee for growth of a medication to treat certain provocative diseases, such as e.g. neurodegenerative and autoimmune infections.

The peptide that transpires in the ancestries of beetroot corns relates to an institution of molecules that seeds employ inter alia as a chemical security against pests such as e.g. bacteria, viruses or infections.

The beetroot peptide specifically hinders prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), which is pertained to in the erosion of protein hormones in the body and is thus prepared to govern provocative reactions.

POP is a much-discussed treatment prey for neurodegenerative and evocative diseases, very as Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, for instance.

This normals that, in future researches, this group of plant peptides phoned ‘knottins’, very as those establish in beetroot, could potentially give a drug nominee for dealing with these diseases.”

The peptide not only arises in the root vegetables but can also be observed in commercially usable beetroot juice – albeit in relatively short engagements.

“Although beetroot charges as a relatively strong vegetable, it would be unfair to wish that dementia could be deterred by legal consumption of beetroot,” fears the MedUni Vienna pharmacologist. “The peptide barely occurs in very small percentages and it is not noticeable whether it can as seriously be eaten by the gastrointestinal tract.”

Using climate’s diagram

The exploration work being conducted by Gruber’s laboratory manipulated the idea of restraining Nature’s blueprint to expand prescription competitors.

Gruber told that they are researching through huge databases including hereditary evidence of plants and animals, analyzing new categories of peptide molecules and researching their hierarchy, intending for to quiz them pharmacologically on enzymes or cellular receptors (such as one of the central medication prey classes, the so-called G protein-coupled receptors) and eventually analyzing them in the infection criteria,” clarifies Gruber.

Potential drug nominees are chemically synthesized in a barely amended form founded on the biological product, in order to attain optimized pharmacological properties.

Young people helping to suppress Covid-19 numbers, says leading doctor – The Irish Times

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

A further 416 cases has brought the number of Covid-19 cases in October to almost 25,000 for the month.

The total of 24,866 surpasses that of the previous record month of April when there were 17,377 recorded cases.

Five more deaths were reported on Saturday bringing the final number for the month to 112. There were 1,141 deaths in the month of April.

The number of people in hospital this month went from 130 at the beginning to 322 at the end of the month peaking on October 27th when there were 354 people in the State’s hospitals with Covid-19.

The new cases and deaths notified by the National Public Health Emergency Team on Saturday brings to 61,456 the total number of infections in the Republic, and the number of coronavirus-related deaths to 1,913.

The numbers in intensive care units increased by one to 42. Of the new cases confirmed as of midnight on Friday, 64 per cent were among people under 45 years of age, with 34 the median age; 186 were men and 230 were women.

Some 87 cases were located in Dublin, followed by 62 in Cork, 41 in Mayo, and 37 in Galway. The remaining 189 cases were spread across 20 other counties.

There were 320 coronavirus patients in hospitals as of 2pm on Saturday, 41 of whom were in intensive care. There has been 19 hospital admissions in the last 24 hours.

Chief medical officer Dr Tony Holohansaid nationally the R-number, which is the reproductive rate of the virus, has dropped to about 1.

This means for every person who contracts the disease they will pass it on to an average of one other individual, suggesting the spread of the virus has slowed following the national lockdown.

“We are making progress in suppressing the current rise of Covid-19. Ireland is currently one of only four countries in the EU with a reduction in its seven-day incidence,” said Dr Holohan.

“We are working collectively to achieve suppression, but it is too early to ease our efforts. The incidence is decreasing in young adults but it continues to rise in those aged over 75. We have more to do but we are on the right track,” he said.

Cavan still has the highest incidence rate of the disease at 645.9 per 100,000 people, with 492 cases in the last 14 days. Meath has the second highest incidence at 500.9, followed by Westmeath, Sligo, Cork, Galway, then Donegal.

Dublin has the 15th highest incidence rate in the country, at 237.7 per 100,000 people, and 3,203 cases in the last 14 days.

Meanwhile, young people have reduced their contacts by half in recent weeks leading to a significant fall in Covid-19 infections, according to the National Public Health Emergency Team ’s Dr Mary Favier.

Dr Favier said there has been a notable change of behaviour among the youth and that the public at large had reduced their close contacts. Moreover, the ban on visiting other households is already having a beneficial effect, she added.

She said the number of contacts that the average teenager who tested positive has had dropped from 20 six weeks ago to 12 a fortnight ago and now to six.

“Young people have been vilified and they have subject to a lot of very negative messages. We have made much more progress. They have lost a lot and they have the most to lose,” she said.

Dr Favier, who is Covid-19 adviser to the Irish College of General Practitioners told The Irish Times that close contacts in the general population has dropped from six to three, meaning that most close contacts now are people in the same household.

“We are in the best part of nine days into the restrictions. We are now seeing a real tightening in terms of people’s levels of contacts,” she said. “We know from previous experience in March that is what really makes the difference.”

However, she cautioned that while numbers of Covid-19 infections in young are declining, they are increasing in the over-65s which are most affected by the disease.

Heres What Happens When Lab-Grown Mini-Lungs Are Exposed to SARS-CoV-2 – ScienceAlert

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

Scientists working on a lab-grown mini-lung are now using their living model to better understand the current pandemic and potential new treatments.

The most recent version of this unique organoid is based entirely on human stem cells, known to repair the deepest parts of our lungs. When the researchers exposed it to SARS-CoV-2, the results were illuminating.

 

Dropping just one of these self-renewing units into a dish containing a tailored growth solution can produce millions of cells in a clump that resembles the tiny air sacs in human lungs.

Known as alveoli, these balloon-like sacs have shown diffuse damage in fatal cases of COVID-19, and while this havoc is often attributed to a storm of immune cells called cytokines, we’re still figuring out how lung injury actually comes about. 

The new mini-model gives us a glimpse of the battle on a molecular scale, and while it’s nowhere near as complex as a real human lung, that’s also what makes it easier to control and observe.

The unique organoid includes just one type of lung stem cell, known as an alveolar type 2 epithelial cell (AT2), which has the ability to self-renew, differentiate into other lung cells, keep the sac open with surfactants, and directly bind to viruses

When the SARS-CoV-2 virus was introduced into this organoid’s dish, researchers say the virus quickly infected the AT2 cells and spread throughout the alveoli-like structure.

The infection also triggered an inflammatory response in the organoid, reducing the production and proliferation of surfactant and inducing cell death, sometimes in surrounding areas that hadn’t even yet been touched by the virus. 

 

“This is a major breakthrough for the field because we were using cells that didn’t have purified cultures,” explains Ralph Baric, an epidemiologist, microbiologist, and immunologist at the University of North Carolina.

“This is incredibly elegant work to figure out how to purify and grow AT2 cells in culture.”

Analysing the gene expression of these mini-organs, researchers found the inflammatory state triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to the production of interferons, cytokines, chemokines, and activation of genes related to cell death. 

What’s more, these signatures showed “striking similarity” to what’s seen in severe COVID-19 patients. The results also match recent growing evidence that suggests severe cases of COVID-19 trigger a cytokine storm that may leave the lungs susceptible to damage. 

Most of these observations, however, come from autopsies and have not been observed in living tissue.

This newly-developed model is a unique and versatile new way to study respiratory viruses in action, and it shows how a cascade of defences within stem cells themselves may cause more damage than good.

“It was thought cytokine storm happened due to the large influx of immune cells, but we can see it also happens in the lung stem cells themselves,” says cell biologist Purushothama Rao Tata from Duke University. 

 

“Now we have a way to figure out how to energise the cells to fight against this deadly virus,” he adds.

In another set of experiments on the mini-lung, researchers found that administering low doses of interferons before infection slowed the spread of the virus, whereas reducing interferons before infection worsened the damage. 

This suggests interferons are somehow mediating the immune response in our alveoli, slowing the cascade of cell death as the lung tries to get ahead of the infection.

But this may not be the whole picture; it’s just a small insight into what’s going on. Other recent studies show that while interferons might be a helpful treatment at certain stages of infection, at other times they can make matters worse.

While there are still many kinks and details that need to be ironed out in their model, researchers hope they can one day grow mini-lungs on which hundreds of experiments can be run at the same time, allowing us to figure out how the lung responds to infection and also how we can best protect it.

There’s never been a more important time to learn more.

The study was published in Cell Stem Cell.

 

Scientists Are Making Music From SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Genetic Code – Forbes

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

If you think about the coronavirus, your mind probably goes to lockdowns, hospitals, and the strange new habits we’ve formed this year. But for some scientists, the virus is essentially nothing more than a piece of code — a code that can be studied, understood, and even turned into music. Mark Temple of Western Sydney University recently created a tool to turn the genetic code of the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus into a pleasant-sounding piece of electronic music.

In an article in The Conversation and a recent publication in the scientific journal BMC Bioinformatics, Temple explains how he converted the viral code into musical notes. He’s done this before, and already had a method to turn DNA code to music. The SARS-CoV-2 genetic information is encoded in RNA. This is very similar to DNA, so he could use the same method to assign different notes to different parts of the virus’ code.

The genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 includes the messages to create different proteins, which make up the virus and interfere with our bodies if we get infected. Understanding these proteins and their code is the key to fighting the virus.

The code seems relatively simple, and follows a predictable pattern: it includes signals for the start and end of genes and for the amino acids that make up the proteins encoded by the virus. It’s the same for every living organism. Temple followed these basic rules of genetics to assign sounds to different parts of the code. Now, certain patterns that have a biological significance (such as the three-letter codes that correspond to specific amino acids) each become a unique sound.

Temple is not the first to turn the SARS-CoV-2 virus to music. Earlier this year, Markus Buehler at MIT converted certain aspects of three-dimensional protein structures into sounds, and used that to make music from the coronavirus spike protein.

The practice of turning data into sound is called sonification. Besides creating interesting new sounds, sonification can have a scientific purpose. Sometimes listening to data instead of only looking at it can help researchers spot an unusual pattern. For example, astrophysicists have used sonification to discover irregularities in large amounts of data that they wouldn’t have been able to notice by eye.

And Buehler’ s sonification of protein structure data was part of a project where he and his colleagues used the music of existing proteins to train an algorithm to generate music that could correspond to possible new proteins, which might one day be used to create new biomaterials.

But for Temple, the main reasons to turn the coronavirus to music were to spark new insights into the viral code, as well as to create new music. That might seem frivolous, but in his piece in The Correspondent, Temple explains that he’s not trying to diminish COVID-19 in any way. “I don’t mean to trivialize the pandemic by thinking about the virus in musical terms,” he writes, adding, “when I think about the virus I see RNA sequences, and it’s my job to see relationships between structure and function.”

Reducing a virus to its genetic and protein codes is what makes it possible to spot very small irregularities that may be relevant at a larger scale. It’s how researchers keep track of the different strains of the viruses they encounter, for example, and that in turn helps them map how the pandemic has spread.

But the researchers who do that molecular work of peering at the code usually have no contact with patients at all. So when researchers like Temple or Buehler turn virus RNA or proteins into music, they aren’t immediately thinking about the rising numbers of COVID-19 death or the ongoing spread of the disease. They’re just seeing the structure and code of the molecules that make up the virus.

The end result of Temple’s work is a pretty cheerful tune that might inspire other scientists to look at particular parts of SARS-CoV-2’s genetic code and better understand how the virus works. But the music is also a reminder that even something as world-changing as the coronavirus is at its core just a piece of code — and thinking of it that way might make the prospect of tackling it a little less intimidating.

COVID-19 spreads faster, more widely within households than previously estimated: US study – TechGenyz

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

Transmission of the novel coronavirus within households is high, occurs quickly, and can originate from both children and adults, according to a new study which assessed 101 houses in the US.

The preliminary findings from the ongoing research, published in the journal Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, revealed that 51 per cent of others living with someone who was positive for COVID-19 also became infected.

“We observed that, after a first household member became sick, several infections were rapidly detected in the household,” said Carlos G. Grijalva, study co-author and associate professor of Health Policy at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the US.

“Those infections occurred fast, whether the first sick household member was a child or an adult,” Grijalva said.

According to the research, at least 75 per cent of the secondary household infections occurred within five days of the first person in the household experiencing symptoms.

It also found that less than half of household members experienced symptoms when they first tested positive, and many reported no symptoms throughout the seven-day daily follow-up period.

“In the absence of an efficient approach for identification of infections without regard to symptoms, these findings suggest that prompt adoption of isolation measures as soon as a person feels ill might reduce the probability of household transmission,” the scientists wrote in the study.

Citing the limitations of the study, the scientists said the initial household member who experienced symptoms was considered the index patient in the research, while other household members may have been infected concurrently but developed symptoms at different times or remained asymptomatic.

However, the researchers believe the findings still underscore the potential for transmission from symptomatic or asymptomatic contact with household members and the importance of quarantine.

“Because prompt isolation of persons with COVID-19 can reduce household transmission, persons who suspect that they might have COVID-19 should isolate, stay at home, and use a separate bedroom and bathroom if feasible,” the scientists said.

“Isolation should begin before seeking testing, and before test results become available because delaying isolation until confirmation of infection could miss an opportunity to reduce transmission to others,” they wrote in the study. PTI

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Covid-19 cases increase in UK – MENAFN.COM

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

(MENAFN) The UK government declared on Friday, October 31st, that during the last 24 hours there have been 24,405 new Covid-19 cases, making the toll 989,745.

274 deaths were confirmed, making the death toll from the virus 46,229.

The Office for National Statistics released that almost 568,100 individuals in England had coronavirus within the previous week.

Numbers suddenly rose among secondary school kids.

Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab has hinted that the government might be adding a Tier 4 to its Tier 3 procedures in order to make new regulations to better control the outbreak.

In Wales, First Minister Mark Drakeford declared that the country will not be implementing lockdowns and curfews once again, but will be working on presenting a new set of regulations that would be less complex and easier to implement.

In Birmingham, the Local leaders have expressed that the lockdown scheme did not have the wanted effect, and that a national circuit-breaker lockdown across England should be contemplated.

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Top 10 Best B Vitamin Liquids 2020 – Best gaming pro

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

This week, GV Common Accomplice (and TechCrunch alum) MG Siegler joined us on Additional Crunch Reside for a far-ranging chat about what it takes to foster a superb relationship between investor and startup, how portfolio administration and investing has modified because the COVID-19 disaster drags on, and what Siegler expects will and gained’t stick round when it comes to adjustments in conduct in funding and entrepreneurship as soon as the pandemic passes.

We final caught up with Siegler on the heels of his funding in Universe, a mobile-focused, e-commerce business-building startup. The coronavirus pandemic was comparatively new and nobody was positive how lengthy it might final or what measures to comprise it might appear like. Now, with a number of months of expertise below his belt, Siegler advised me that issues have comparatively settled into a brand new regular from his perspective as an investor – typically for worse, typically for higher, however principally simply leading to variations that require adaptation.

This choose transcript has been edited for size and readability. Other than part headers, all textual content under is taken from MG Siegler’s responses to my questions.

Enterprise impacts of dealing with the pandemic six months on

Simply speaking about the enterprise aspect of the equation, I do suppose that issues have type of stabilized within the day-to-day world right here. For us, actually, I suppose it’s it’s simply as a lot of a issue although, of simply studying how to function in this in this bizarre and surreal surroundings, and understanding how to do distant conferences higher. Okaynowing how to hop on fast Zoom calls, Hangouts, and cellphone calls, with portfolio corporations, to assist put out fires, and doing all board conferences remotely, and all that type of stuff.

That appears like it’s fairly simple on paper, however in day-to-day operations, these are all totally different little studying issues that you have to do and come throughout. I do really feel like issues are working in a fairly streamlined method, or as a lot as they can be at this level. However, you know, there’s at all times going to be some extra wildcards – like we’re a week away, at present, from from the US election.

RIVM: number of positive tests again below 10,000 – AlKhaleej Today

Last Updated on October 31, 2020 by

A total of 2,448 people with corona are now in hospital (yesterday: 2385), 584 of whom are in the ICU (yesterday: 567). More corona patients were admitted than were discharged.

51 covid patients died

51 deceased covid patients have been reported to the RIVM. Yesterday, 87 deaths were reported. In the past seven days, RIVM registered an average of 54 deaths per day, against 40 deaths per day a week earlier.

The most reported infections were found in Rotterdam, namely 641. Many positive tests were also counted in Amsterdam and The Hague, 559 and 375 respectively.

These were the details of the news RIVM: number of positive tests again below 10,000 for this day. We hope that we have succeeded by giving you the full details and information. To follow all our news, you can subscribe to the alerts system or to one of our different systems to provide you with all that is new.

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